Osteoporosis is a silent disease. It has no obvious symptoms in its early stages, and is often diagnosed only after a fracture occurs. However, in some cases, there are warning signs, such as:
- Loss of height
- Spine curvature (due to bone loss)
- Back pain
- History of fracture as an adult
How Is Osteoporosis Diagnosed?
Bone mineral density is painlessly and safely measured through dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA) scans of the hip or spine.
The result of your DXA scan is presented as a T-score, which represents the difference of your bone density from the average bone density of healthy young adults.
Pre-osteoporosis (Low bone mineral density)
Diagnosed if your T-score is between -1.0 and -2.5.
Diagnosed if your T-score is -2.5 or less. This means that your bone density is equal to or less than 2.5 standard deviations below the mean of a healthy young adult.
Although any negative T-score means that a person’s bone density is below average, a T-score greater than -1.0 is considered normal.
What Your Bone Scan Doesn’t Tell You
Your bone mineral density T-score is a two-dimensional, cross-sectional view of just one bone in your skeleton and does not indicate other factors that may influence your risk for an osteoporotic fracture.
For example, while the quality of the bone matrix and its microarchitecture contribute to bone strength, problems with vision and sense of balance can also increase your chances of a high-trauma fall that can result in fracture.
After being diagnosed with osteoporosis or low bone mineral density, your physician may recommend follow-up bone mineral density scans to evaluate whether treatment options are working.
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Kyphosis, or curvature of the spine, can be caused by low vertebral bone density. It can indicate poor bone health.
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